Noticias Falsas: Algoritmos y bots en la web. Publicado en el especial de El Salto #8

Noticias Falsas: Algoritmos y bots en la web
Sandra Álvaro Sánchez

A finales de 2016 el diccionario Oxford seleccionó el neologismo ‘posverdad’ como palabra del
año. Un adjetivo que hace relación o denota circunstancias en las cuales los hechos objetivos
tienen menos influencia en la opinión pública, que las apelaciones a las emociones y a las
creencias personales. En este termino el prefijo ‘pos’ hace referencia a la irrelevancia de la
verdad. Una circunstancia que se ha relacionado con el aumento de la desinformación en
Internet, hecho que ha sido identificado por el Forum Económico Mundial como una de las
amenazas que enfrenta la sociedad a nivel global.
La desinformación en las redes se relaciona con la constatación de que en la web una falsedad
tiene las mismas posibilidades de hacerse viral que un echo real. Esto se ha atribuido a la
creación de cámaras de resonancia y al uso de bots para promocionar campañas, dentro de
las redes sociales.

Disponible en quioscos. Más información


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Algorithmic Culture

Algorithmic Culture


Sandra Álvaro

(2013 – 2017)



Compilation of critical texts addressing the spread of the pervasiveness of data-processing and the devices, disciplines, and societal challenges related to this event.

The texts by Sandra Álvaro Sanchez have been originally published at the Blog of the CCCBLab

DO – 10.13140/RG.2.2.23353.06248

Available on-line

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Lecture at the Open Fields Conference 2017: Virtualities and Realities



October 19-21, 2017

Art Academy of Latvia, National Art Museum, kim? and RIXC Gallery in Riga


VIRTUALITIES AND REALITIES aims to establish a space for artistic interventions and conversations about the complex implications of augmented and virtual reality. Immersive technologies coupled with virtual environments, artificial intelligence algorithms, faster processors, and biometrics are launching a new era in virtual experiences.

programme on-line

Sandra Alvaro: Behind the Black Mirror


Behind the black mirror, there is not the emptiness of the cyberspace, but the transductions between the potential differentials of a whole machine.

In 1962 Mort Heilig produced the Sensorama, this first proposal of an immersive system will soon encounter the evolution of computer graphics and its endeavour: simulate reality in the controllable surface of computers. The translation of images to data packages and the coding of complex algorithms produced the interactive interfaces and the dystopian worlds inhabited by human surrogates, but also the training systems where the bodies and movements of pilots become data, which are sensed and translated to simulated landscapes of warfare. Rendering these data as images, computers learned how to read any image of our world as data. Computer vision and the pervasiveness of networked computing has augmented the perception of the everyday world with communication capabilities and digital information which is contextualised and delivered in real-time. Virtual and Augmented reality has contributed to developing the systems that allow abstract our world into data readable by computers towards the constitution of a ubiquitous medium in which our daily interactions are under the commanding of the standards and protocols of unperceived platforms (Bratton, 2016). Postdigital Art (Bishop et al, 2016) goes beyond the interfaces to encounter the materiality of this whole machine and disrupt it building critical assemblages, which can embody the computer mediated processes shaping our daily lives and repurpose them for the proposal of potential futures. This text will introduce new artistic strategies which take advantage of the virtual capabilities of these systems to disrupt the immediacy and real-time tracking and unveil a deep time. The complex processes from where emerge our current technosocial milieu and its capability for the design of speculative futures.


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Cultural Innovation International Prize _ PostDigital Strategies for the Anthropocene


PostDigital Strategies for the Anthropocene will be presented at the

Climate, culture, change

Activity programme and prize award presentation ceremony of the 2nd Cultural Innovation International Prize 2016-2017

to be held the 20 – 21 June 2017 at the CCCB


“Postdigital Strategies for the Anthropocene” is a project that applies the concept of Postdigital Strategies* to the understanding of the Anthropocene. Specifically, it proposes the design of actions to involve audiences with climate change and turn them into active and empowered agents. The aim of the project is to propitiate a posthumanist vision of the Anthropocene and, at the same time, to foster new relationships between institutions, audiences and the technosocial milieu. This new relationship is meant to shift the Cultural Institution into a Space of Transformation*. This is a space of encounter for collectives of human and non-human agents as well as the controversies emerging from the concretization of the concept (Anthropocene). The institution becomes at the same time an agent actively involved in the social and environmental construction that characterizes this concept. The audience becomes an active agent, empowered by the acquisition of an operative knowledge emerging from the appropriation of the technological milieu for the development of local actions aimed at the improvement of the ecosystem.

We are increasingly aware of the role that data processing plays in the understanding and management of our environment. Computing technology has become ubiquitous and embedded in daily life. In this way, it is producing new possibilities for the design and control of our environment. Our milieu is becoming technological and this arises expectations, fears and controversies. On one hand, there is a techno-utopic confidence in the computing capacities of an almost omniscient machine, constituted by networked sensors and processors, believed to be able to solve the pressing problems that can bring our civilization to collapse. On the other hand, there are growing fears about the surveillance capabilities of a system in which we are inadvertently integrated and reduced to a set of computable features, potentially becoming passive and manipulated by the milieu itself. Numerous controversies spawn from the tensions between the continuous need for innovation and production that characterize our economic system against the need to modify our behaviour in order to develop more sustainable ways of life. In front of this situation, the Postdigital Strategies stand as a proposal to appropriate technology, inspired by artistic practices, in a way where the users will intervene in the functioning of these technologies by acquiring an operative knowledge. From these actions, it will be possible to unveil the complex ecological meshwork we are involved in. Through this process of involvement and discovery, the audience becomes an agent able to start actions that eventually could be amplified towards a significant environmental change.

These strategies, result in the development of projects related to citizen science. Projects such as,,, and others involve citizens beyond mere data collection and into the open fabrication of sensing devices and in producing awareness about the material conditions in which data are constructed. However, there are comparatively few projects that involve audiences in data use and interpretation. Our proposal is aimed to provide the audiences with tools that empower them in data collection, data interpretation and in the critical and operative use of the epistemological models resulting from their involvement. Whit this goal in mind, we propose the creation of a platform and the realization of a series of workshops to be held concurrently with the exhibition “After the end of the world”. From these activities there will emerge new forms to understanding, narrating, and acting in this new geological era in which we are all immersed since participants will be engaged in the processes that they devise and hence can also change.


The term Anthropocene was proposed in 2000 by Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer, in the article Have we entered the Anthropocene? Here, they defined a new geological era in which humankind’s activities had increased its capacity to transform the environment to the point of becoming a new geological force, and altered to the need to harness research and engineering to create a sustainable global environment.

The Anthropocene situates us in a world where the natural environment has been modified by human technological capacity, with practices such as extensive agriculture, industrialisation, colonialism, the atomic age, urbanisation and the subsequent increase in human population (which grew from one to seven million between 1804 and 2011), changing the composition of the soil and the atmosphere, causing the redistribution of some plant and animal species, and the mass extinction of others. These changes are aproaching limits that threaten the continuity of our ecosystem. One of these limits is climate change. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased from 280 parts per milion in the industrial era to 400 ppm in 2014, the recognised limit of acceptable climate risk. This increase is giving rise to consequences such as an accelerated melting of the ice sheets in the Antartic, rising sea levels, and the disappearance of coral reefs. Studyng and addressing this complex situation with which the Anthropocene present us calls for more than a single scientific discipline, and the involvement of all human and non-human agents.

Since its advent, “Anthropocene” has been a scientific term, with a comission to examine the Anthropocene that studies the uniform deposit of artificial materials on the earth’s crust to propose recognition of this geological era to the International Commission on Stratigraphy. But it is also a political term, highlighting the way in which the administration of resources linked to capitalism is leading us inevitably to the collapse of our civilisation. It also is a philosophical term, which has become part of the thinking of authors such as Braidoti, Stiegler and McKenzie Wark, who move between the critique of the current social system and the proposal of a post-humanist vision that can throw light on this complex situation, at the same time alerting us about the problems of excessive confidence in constructivism.

Although there are various diverging proposals when it comes to defining the concept of the Anthropocene, Stiegler dates its emergence to the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial era saw a new organology – a new relation between human beings and the technolgical system based on automation.

The appearance of this new technical system produced an epistemic crisis, undermining the traditional distinction between natura and culture. Nature was conceived as a given, the object of contemplation, while technological activity was regarded as something contingent an outside rational thought. Automation has produced non-human agents capable of forming a system and transforming living conditions, at the same time showing the world not as something in equilibrium but as a result of thermodynamic processes. The world emerged as neguentropy, the result of processes beyond our control and our will.

This system evolved towards the constitution of global capitalism and the algorithmic control tha characterises our present day environment. The automation of calculation processes has led to the development of information science and ubiquitous computing, a system based on the ability to abstract any entity in the environment to computable data that has increased its processing capacity and connectivity to the point of becoming embedded in the physical environment, modifying not only how we perceibe it and communicate in it, but also its confrmation and administration, increasingly carried out by artificial intelligent autnomous systems. Stiegler attributes to this situation, which I characterize as Postdigital, the destruction of the social environment, and the absence of rituals and shared dreams that allow us to project human thought into the future, allowing us to question the current situation and start producing new things. A world where the technological system becomes autonomous and self-producing, apart from our knowledge and consciousness, at the same time as it destroys the biosphere.

Postdigital Strategies connect with Stiegler’s proposal of a productive intervention. The emergence of a technical mentality, defined by Simondon as knowledge of the emerging system in use, allowing the appropriation of the apparatus of the present technological system towards speculative experimentation and the creation of novelty.

In this way. Postdigital Strategies approach the concept of hypermaterialisation proposed by Stiegler- A form of daily reality in which material applications transform everything into information subjected to contiuous transformation. Or to the concept, closer to artistic practice of Neomateriality, proposed by Christiane Paul. An objectology that incorporates connected digital technologies and subsumes processes to reveal the encoding processes, the data incorporated from humans and the environment, and show how digital processes see our world.

While approaching practices related to software studies and media archeology, the Pstdigital Strategies aim to reveal the form and functioning of the digital apparatus shaping our environment. Postdigital Strategies are activities that involve collectives in physical experimentation with new technologies for creative purposes. Activities that see the emergence of an operative knoeledge that allow us to understand the capacity foranticipation and action of ubiquitous computing, at the same time producing things that arecapable of interrupting the autopoietic functioning of the system. Activities that allow the people in question to become agents involved in the production of new things and the speculation about new forms of life.

These strategies are defined as ativities that experiment with the material components of today’s technological system, whit the following aims:

  • To criticise and embody the information processes and epistemological models that are mediating our understanding of the world. From the macroscope to the collaborative production of locally implemented and inclusive data diagrams.
  • To promote the creation of collectives of human and non-human that propitiates the inclusion of all agents and the understanding of the ecosystem we are involved.
  • The speculation about new possibilities, objects and processes, locally produced, which can be maximized towards a significant change in the biosphere.


Today we are seing the promotion of institutional websites and projects to showcase the global changes in our ecological system, visualizations sucha as Cameron Beccario’s “Earth Windmap” that enable us to follow climatology in real time all over the planet, or “Migration in Motion” by Justine E. Hausheer, which shows the movement across the globe of various animal species due to climate change, also the design of platforms where citizens can upload observations to databases for producing new visualizations.

But these models remain macrosystems, operating out of reach of our actions and daily lives, something that happens in a different sphere and to be analized by experts, where citizens are mere observers, ignorant of the role they play in this change and its conceptualization. This project aims to make the cultural institution a welcoming space where citizens can become active agents involved not just in mitigating climate change but also in understanding and conceptulizing Anthropocene.

Project developed by Sandra Álvaro.

Workshops by: Pilar Rosado,  Natalie Jeremijenko, Sandra Álvaro and Ramon Sangüesa

* Concepts developed in the Ph.D thesis: “Postdigital City. Aesthetics and Politics in the Space of Embodied Virtuality”: Sandra Álvaro, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona 2016. ISBN 9788449068775

PostDigital Strategies for the Anthropocene is one of the teen finalists projects at the Cultural Innovation International Prize held at CCCB Barcelona


The Cultural Innovation International Prize is a biennial competition organised by the Centre of Contemporary Culture of Barcelona (CCCB) with the aim of incentivising projects which explore possible cultural scenarios for the coming years. It functions as a new space for creation, production and diffusion of projects concerned with developing imaginative solutions for the cultural challenges of the twenty-first century.


The second edition of the Cultural Innovation International Prize focuses on the subject of Climate hange.

How can culture defy climate change? The second edition of the Cultural Innovation International Prize encourages projects that offer imaginative and effective solutions to one of the biggest global problems of the 21st century. The winning proposal will be featured in the activities included in an exhibition on the subject at the CCCB

more information:

About the shortlisted Proposals
Program of the event See the program of the event

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“Internet Paradis Perdut” debat a l’Alternativa


L’Alternativa TV s’emet en directe, des de la Facultat de Ciències de la Comunicació de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, a través dels serveis de ‘UAB Campus Media’ i compta amb l’impuls de la ‘Fundació Periodisme Plural’, l’associació ‘Solidaritat i Comunicació-SICOM’, i les publicacions ‘Alternativas Económicas’ i ‘Mongolia’. El presentador és el periodista i professor de la Facultat de Ciències de la Comunicació de la UAB, Frederic Pahisa.

“Internet Paradis Perdut”

Els avenços proporcionats per la revolució digital amb la interconnexió planetària a través d’Internet -que es presentava com a una incontestable eina emancipadora- conformen, a hores d’ara, una jungla incerta de macro-interessos corporatius, ciberatacs que modifiquen l’equilibri geopolític, fomenten el consum compulsiu i generen postveritats  que aniquilen el periodisme rigorós.

Internet s’ha convertit en una eina farcida de llums i ombres, que alguns analistes consideren que serveix més com a eina de control de la ciutadania que com a mitjà democratitzador de la comunicació.

En parlem a la nova edició del programa ‘L’AlternativaTV’, aquest divendres 12 de maig, de 12:30 a 13:30 hores

Ho fem amb:


Doctora en Filosofia per la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona i investigadora de la cultura digital


Enginyera tècnica en Informàtica i presidenta de ‘Barcelona Open Data’


Professor de la Facultat de Comunicació de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra i expert en Periodisme i Internet

Algunes reflexions personals sobre el debat:

La societat informacional es produeix a partir de la difusió d’internet. Una tecnologia que ha evolucionat i s’ha expandit a un ritme mai vist avanç i que s’ha infiltrat en la nostra societat i cultura. Internet ha demostrat un gran poder transformador que s’ha notat en el nostre sistema econòmic, en la administració de l’espai public i en el nostre temps d’esbarjo. A mesura que s’incrementa la connectivitat, es multipliquen els serveis als nostres telèfons mòbils i apareixen cada cop més dispositius connectats – internet de les coses inclou objectes tan quotidians com les nostres targetes de crèdit-, Internet i els algoritmes que l’administren penetren la estructura critica de la societat. Manel Castells a demes de sistematitzar el poder transformador d’aquest mitja el va qualificar com espai per l’auto-comunicació de masses. La web democratitza la informació i apodera els ciutadans. A les xarxes socials no estem sols, aquest sistema afavoreix el retrobament entre persones amb els mateixos interessos i les mateixes reclamacions afavorint l’acció col·lectiva. D’aquesta manera internet va jugar un paper important en la primavera Àrab al 2011, així com en el moviment dels Indignats a Espanya i el posterior Ocupa Wall Street, i més recentment en la Marxa de les Dones. Ara bé, fets recents com la difusió de noticies falses durant les eleccions americanes juntament amb altres usos abusius de la xarxa com la multiplicació de bots que promouen campanyes enganyoses, els ciber-atacs atribuïts al govern rus durant les eleccions franceses o el filtratge a la xarxa de les eines que la agencia d’intel·ligència americana utilitza per espiar als usuaris, ens han dut a considerar l’influencia que te aquest mitja no només sobre les nostres vides sinó en la geopolítica internacional, al mateix temps que ha plantejat si la obertura del mitjà s’ha tornat en contra dels cibernautes.

El debat ha plantejat com ha canviat la manera en que ens informem actualment, quin es el paper dels mitjans de premsa tradicionals respecte aquest mitjà i com en podem mantenir la bona salut i el funcionament democràtic.

La web i més específicament les xarxes socials han desplaçat els mitjans tradicionals com a font d’informació privilegiada. Posant-ne un exemple: El 21 de desembre es va celebrar La Marxa de les Dones, un seguit de manifestacions simultànies a diferents ciutats dels EUA en protesta per la misogínia i comentaris masclistes del que aleshores estava essent investiu president d’aquest país. Avui en dia no necessitem esperar a llegir-ne una interpretació en un diari, que probablement serà esbiaixada – segons informes recents els mitjans informatius catalans son lluny de la paritat – , probablement contindrà incorreccions – no existeixen acords entre agencies de noticies catalanes i agencies de comprovació de fets, ni cap compromís explicit amb aquests procediments- i ben segur parcial. Quan en canvi aquest fet passa a formar part del nostre entorn immediat gracies a les publicacions dels nostres contactes, que ens mostren en streaming com marxen pel carrer acompanyades de milers de dones, però que prèviament ens han ensenyat fotografies de com teixien barrets roses en diferents associacions cíviques i han comentat els fets indignants que han portat a emprendre aquestes accions. Tot això forma una narració col·lectiva en que participen múltiples actors, els protagonistes directament implicats, però també molta altre gent que mostra el seu suport i ha on els mitjans tradicionals estan representats com una veu més, en els comentaris dels qui decideixen compartir les noticies dins la xarxa. Aquest diàleg plural augmenta la nostra consciencia del entorn i enriqueix el nostre coneixement.

Ara bé, el filtratge algorítmic que s’aplica en aquests mitjans a partir del monitoratge de les nostres preferències, contactes i accions ens segrega en grups ben definits creant bombolles. Aquestes bombolles ens circumscriuen dins unes narratives sense donar-nos accés a punts de vista divergents i creant cambres de ressonància en que la informació es comparteix acríticament al mateix temps en que es destrueix el diàleg social. Aquesta segregació a demes ens inscriu dins de conjunts de característiques definides que poden esser explotades per crear noticies a mida. Noticies falses que es presenten de mode atraient per a ser replicades en vistes a posteriors beneficis, i que en un món tot connectant on es dilueixen les barreres entre el món virtual i el físic poden tenir efectes en la societat.

La solució a aquest problema passa per que els administradors de les xarxes socials reconeguin el seu paper dins de la formació de la comunitat global al mateix temps que desenvolupen eines i processos que permetin la comprovació col·lectiva de la veracitat i valor del que circula a la xarxa. Facebook ha actualitzat la seva política de continguts per començar a incloure eines que permetin als usuaris reportar continguts enganyosos i ofensius, al mateix temps que inclou en el diàleg agencies reconegudes de comprovació de fets. Però encara manquen estratègies que facin l’acció dels algoritmes que decideixen qui som dins la xarxa i a quina informació tenim accés transparents i susceptibles de una intervenció col·lectiva en la conformació i administració d’aquest mitja.

Internet més que regulat ha d’ésser protegit, per a que el us abusiu del que va començar essent un mitja obert e inclusiu no el transformi en un espai on només circula soroll o en un mitja de control distopic.

Per saber-ne més:

“Conviure amb algoritmes intel·ligents”

“Notícies falses. Compartir és curar”

“El poder dels Algoritmes. Com el softwar formata la cultura”

“Big Data i humanitats digitals: de la computació social als reptes de la cultura connectada”

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Ph.D thesis: PostDigital City: Aesthetics and Politics in the Space of Embodied Virtuality


Thesis Defense

PostDigital City: Aesthetics and Politics in the Space of Embodied Virtuality

Sandra Álvaro Sánchez

Departament de Filosofia UAB

Directors/tutors: Dr. Khaldoun Zreik (Université Paris8), Dr. David Casacuberta Sevilla (UAB)


Dr. Jean Attali (ENSA de Paris-Malaquais)

Dra. Anna Estany Profitós (UAB)

Dr. Ramón Sangüesa i Solé (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)


Monday, 28th November – 10:00 h.

Sala B11 de la Facultat de Filosofia i Lletres

(Planta baixa prop de les aules d’informàtica)

UAB Campus Bellaterra

Carrer de la Fortuna, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona

Registered at TESEO

Full Text Available



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Lecture at Computer Art Congress 5

Computer Art Congress 5 – Digital Art: Archiving and Questioning Immateriality – 2016, Paris

October 26-28, 2016. MSH Paris Nord


Computer Art Congres 5
CAC 5 Poster

“Art and Data: the aesthetic emergence of knowledge”


The Aesthetic Rendering of Knowledge refers to two linked processes: the mediation of images in the processes of inscription of science and the use that artists make of the metaphorical movements of images for the layout of possible new worlds.

In our Postdigital situation, all processes of inscription have converged to the computer. The multidimensional spaces unfolded in the modeling of data to represent the world as a set of attribute-value relations are shaping a new epistemology and aesthetics. Diagrams are changing the way we understand and act in our world and are characterized by their modularity, not only allowing us to model complexity towards the accomplishment of pre-emption and control but also the creation.

Lecture and long paper

published at:

Sandra Álvaro Sánchez (2016) “Art and Data: the aesthetic emergence of knowledge” at Everardo Reyes-García, Pierre Châtel- Innocenti, Khaldoun Zreik (eds) Archiving and Questioning Immateriality Proceedings of the 5th Computer art Congres, Europia productions, Paris, pp.108-126

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Lecture at Open Fields Conference



“Open Fields will be investigating the use of data visualizations and other mappings of the contemporary. It will look into areas such as open commons, the future of social interaction, data representation and visualisation, critical design, sustainable infrastructures, eco-aesthetics, techno-ecologies, bio-hacking and other techniques of a transformative potential. No Field is excluded, yet there should always be a connection with art; it is highly likely that art works and conference papers will touch on several Fields, not one. It is such an enhanced understanding of transdisciplinarity that drives this undertaking.”


From wednesday, September 28 to Saturday, October 1 -2016

at The National Library of Latvia, Mukusalas iela 3

Sandra Alvaro: Artistic Production and Embodied Information. Tracking Spaces of Transformation

Friday,  September 30 – 11.45 – 13.0Parallel Session (75 min.) Data Visualization 


The practice of databasing is overstepping the field of scientific research to spread to all ambits of our culture. This contemporaneous situation is denominated as Big Data, Datification or Data-driven society. Terms defining a situation where our world is abstracted to a set of features, which can be operable by the algorithms of software. Software studies consider the pragmatics and materiality of software, from the point of view of the circuitry that executes its commands and the politics it meshes in (Mathew Fuller).
Here, spaces of transformation (Serres) is denominating fab labs, hackerspaces, citizen labs… from where arises a self-organized culture aimed at the production and disruption of the new technological apparatus, shaping our world. In it, practices as data visualization, physical computing, and additive fabrication become the spaces of a situated knowledge (Haraway) and a new literacy that emerges from the engagement between working with materials and the complex space that emerges. Despite, its engagement with the local, these spaces are spreading globally from Europe (Chaos Computer Group) to China (XinCheJian) and the USA (The Bridge). Cultural Analytics is the use of computational methods for the analysis of massive cultural data sets and flows (Manovich). It allows investigating global culture by means of the visualization of massively produced cultural artifacts. Here I propose the investigation of the culture emerging from these spaces of transformation by means of tracking on the web the material cultural artifacts produced in these spaces as digital objects, visualizations, and assemblages of microprocessors.


Culture Analytics, Software Studies, hacking, data visualization, additive fabrication, material culture

see full progra at:

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Lecture at ISEA 2015: “Disruptive Strategies in the PostDigital City”


Sandra Álvaro Sanchez: “Disruptive Strategies in The Postdigital City”. Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Electronic Art. pp: 133-136, ISSN: 2451-8611 ISBN: 978-1-910172-00-1


The development of the sociotechnical apparatus shaping our Post-Digital space and culture ran simultaneously with the conception of a relational and processual reality and the development of computation and networks, which are becoming ubiquitous. These technologies have embedded in our physical space, giving birth to a fuzzy system that struggles between the opportunities for collective engagement, offered by networked communication, and the capacity to control of a pervasive and opaque system. Art has been experimenting with these new technologies from its inception thus assuming the aesthetical and political commitment to develop strategies capable of disrupting the codes of domination and promoting a collective and constructive appropriation of space. These strategies refer to practices of embodiment and encounter, capable of promoting new assemblages toward the accomplishment of the
Right to the City, the new citizenship proposed in the theories by Lefebvre and the actions of the Situationists.
Post-Digital Space, Right to the City, Hardware Criticism, Appropriation

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Digital Culture in China


Investigación llevada a cabo en China, Shanghai entre 2014-2015

Con más de 564 millones de usuarios, China cuenta con la mayor red de ciudadanos conectados del mundo. Internet se implantó en China en el año 1994, encauzando con el proceso de reforma iniciado después de la Revolución Cultural. La economía de mercado socialista consiste en la apertura del país a capitales extranjeros y la implantación de las nuevas tecnologías. Una política que dio lugar a lo que Rodney Wai-chi Chu y Chung-tai Cheng denominan «doble conmoción» (double juggernaut), la acelerada y simultánea capitalización y cibernetización del país. Esta investigación se materializa en la publicación de una serie de artículos centrados en el desarrollo y uso de Internet en este pais. El florecimiento del Novimiento Maker y la Implantación de Internet de las Cosas.

Artículos publicados:

La otra red tras la gran muralla (I)

La otra red tras la gran muralla (II)

La cultura maker en China (I): XinCheJian, un Hackerspace con características chinas

La cultura maker en China (II): Shanzhai, innovación emergente en un ecosistema de manufactura abierto

La cultura maker en China (III): Con las manos en la materia, por el progreso económico y social

mas contenidos en preparación



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